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2015 . . 19061931 ϳ (Per Anders Rudling. The Rise and Fall of Belarusian Nationalism, 19061931. Pittsburgh, 2015. 436 p.).

, 㳳 , , .

, , , a borderland terrain, social project, and political tool ( , ).

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Six Declarations of Statehood in Three years. Origins of a New National Mythology ( . 㳳).

ֳ ? . . in any sense of the word ( - ), . : By the mid-1920s the BSSR, while a proto-state, was emerging as an increasingly self-confident new European political entity ( 1920- , , , ).

, , . , : the multiple, serious attempts to establish Belarusian statehood were a landmark in the intellectual history of Belarusian nationalism ( ).

. Ironically, to a large extent the BNR came to be remembered and commemorated for its symbolic acts that, at the time, had no or little practical importance ( , , , ).

(. 82), : The impact of a rich plethora of journals, which argued that Belarusian was a separate language, appears to have had a significant impact on the elites, not least the Bolsheviks ( , , , , , ). , , , , .

, 1920 ϳ , : Yet Anton Lutskevich understood the importance of fiction, or nationalist imagination( , ). : The BNR may have been a fiction, but a powerful one with an enduring and significant sway over the nationalist imagination ( , , ).

: , the most formidableBelarusianmilitary challenge to the Bolsheviks ( 곻 ). , 12 . , (ϳ : Today he is a Pole, tomorrow hell be a Russian, the day after, a Belarusian and the following day perhaps an African Ѹ , , , , ) , . , .

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. ͳ . the new nationalizing state ( ).

. , -, did not trust Wilson, whom he regarded as a tool of the Jews, nor David Lloyd George, who, Dmowski later claimed, acted like an agent of the Jews ( ³, ࠸ , , , , ). , , deeply embarrassing ( 볻), , . ϳ, , Ⳣ . , in private Piłsudski voiced his misgivings that he would not want to discuss plans of federation without a revolver in my pocket ( ϳ c , ).

. Գ , . : , .

, , . . . , / . 19211925 , ˳ . , , : [t]he vast majority of the population had no experience of social and political mobilization of any kind ( ). , , . : 1920- , .

, : a champion of national and class rights of the West Belarusians ( ࢻ).

( [i]n West Belarus the least developed part of the Second Polish Republic ). , . , . , ( -, ), .

, ϳ. To the Belarusian nationalists, the choice between the old government, consisting partly of National Democrats, and military rule under Pilsudski was not obvious. Neither recognized Belarusian national aspirations as legitimate ( , -, ϳ . ͳ, 쳻).

Ⳣ . , Piłsudskis authoritarian sanacja order displayed fascist and corporatist tendencies, though it lacked the social dynamism of Nazism and Bolshevism ( ϳ, , , ). , 1926 ᳢ , . .

Գ 1930 . , , - , 1928 , 26% . . 1930 ϳ , . 19271929 .

:Why is there today an independent Belarus and how did this state appear?

19001920- ? , . Why does the political landscape in Belarus look so different from those of its neighbors? How do we explain the relative weakness of nationalism and the divided historical memory? At the bottom of these issues looms a larger question: why is there today an independent Belarus, and how did this state appear? ( ? ? : ?).

. 쳳 , , , . . . [I]t was mostly democratic, socialist leaning, and anticolonial, employing ethnicity, language, and culture as vehicles for agency and political empowerment ( , , ).

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